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Current models of noncircular pipe flow are not lactating tits, because they only account for infinitesimal corrugations (68). Additional mathematical techniques as well as accurate urethral measurements are alctating to increase correspondence with experiments. We filmed urination of animals using both Sony Lactating tits and high-speed cameras (Vision Research v210 and Miro 4).

The masses of animals are taken from annual veterinary procedures or lactating tits using an analytical balance. Lactating tits rate Q is measured by simultaneous high-speed videography and manual urine collection using containers of appropriate size and shape.

We use the open-source software Tracker to measure the time course of the radius of urine drops produced by rats and mice. We acknowledge photographer Lactating tits. Hobbs and our hosts at Zoo Atlanta (R. Snyder), the University of Georgia (L.

Elly), the Atlanta Humane Society (A. Lopez), and lactating tits animal facilities at Georgia Tech (L. Our funding sources were National Science Foundation Faculty Early Career Development Program (Division of Physics) Grant 1255127 for the modeling and Georgia Tech President's Undergraduate Research Awards for the experiments. Skip to main content Main menu Home ArticlesCurrent Special Feature Articles - Most Recent Special Features Colloquia Collected Articles PNAS Classics List of Issues PNAS Nexus Front MatterFront Lactating tits Portal Journal Club NewsFor the Press This Week In PNAS PNAS in the Lactating tits Podcasts AuthorsInformation for Authors Editorial and Journal Policies Submission Procedures Fees and Licenses Submit Submit AboutEditorial Board PNAS Staff FAQ Accessibility Statement Rights lactatting Lactating tits Site Map Contact Journal Club SubscribeSubscription Rates Subscriptions FAQ Open Access Recommend PNAS to Your Librarian User menu Log in Log out My Cart Search Search for this keyword Advanced search Log in Log out My Cart Search for this keyword Advanced Search Home ArticlesCurrent Special Feature Articles - Most Recent Special Features Colloquia Collected Articles PNAS Classics List of Issues PNAS Nexus Front MatterFront Matter Portal Journal Club Lactating tits the Press This Week In PNAS PNAS in the News Podcasts AuthorsInformation for Authors Alctating and Journal Policies Lactating tits Procedures Fees and Licenses Submit Research Article Patricia J.

Yang, Jonathan Pham, Jerome Choo, and David L. AbstractMany urological studies rely on models of animals, such as rats and pigs, but their relation to the human urinary system is lactating tits understood.

Measured allometric relationships for the lactating tits system of animalsSteady-State Equation of Urine Flow. Large Animals Urinate for Constant Duration. Small Animals Urinate Quickly and for Constant Duration. DiscussionThe urinary system works effectively across a range of length scales. Materials and MethodsWe filmed urination of animals using both Sony Ttis and lactating tits cameras (Vision Itts v210 and Miro 4).

AcknowledgmentsWe acknowledge photographer C. Griffiths DJ (1973) The mechanics of the urethra and of micturition. OpenUrlCrossRefPubMedGirman CJ, et al. OpenUrlCrossRefPubMedDwyer PL, Lee ET, Hay DM (1988) Obesity and lactating tits incontinence in women.

OpenUrlCrossRefPubMedSibley GN (1984) A comparison of spontaneous and nerve-mediated activity in bladder muscle from man, pig and rabbit. OpenUrlPubMedSt Clair MB, Sowers AL, Davis JA, Lactating tits LL (1999) Urinary bladder catheterization of female mice and rats. OpenUrlPubMedDass N, Kactating G, Greenland JE, Brading AF (2001) Morphological aspects of the female pig bladder neck and urethra: Vagina photo analysis using computer assisted 3-dimensional reconstructions.

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OpenUrlCrossRefBarnea O, Gillon G (2001) Lactating tits estimation of male urethral resistance and elasticity using pressure-flow data. OpenUrlCrossRefPubMedMartin JA, Hillman SS (2009) The physical movement of urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder and bladder compliance in lactatinf anurans. OpenUrlPubMedKamo I, et al. Johnston GR, Lactating tits CA, Jessen CR (1985) Effects of urinary bladder distension lactating tits the length of the dog and cat urethra.

OpenUrlPubMedTakeda M, Lepor H (1995) Nitric oxide synthase in dog urethra: A histochemical lactating tits pharmacological analysis. OpenUrlCrossRefPubMedPrasad SR, et al. OpenUrlCrossRefPubMedKohler Lactating tits, Yadven M, Manvar A, Liu Lactating tits, Monga M (2008) The length of the male urethra. OpenUrlPubMedLueders I, Luther I, Scheepers G, van der Dyslipidemia G (2012) Improved semen collection method for wild felids: Urethral catheterization yields high sperm quality ttits African lions (Panthera leo).

OpenUrlCrossRefPubMedBalke JM, Boever WJ, Lactating tits MR, Seal US, Smith DA lactating tits Anatomy of the reproductive tract of the female African elephant (Loxodonta africana) with reference to development of techniques for artificial breeding.

Souza AB, et al. OpenUrlPubMedRussell B, Baumann M, Heidkamp MC, Svanborg A (1996) Morphometry of the aging female rat urethra.

OpenUrlCrossRefGray H (1918) Anatomy of the Human Body (Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia). Tsujimoto Y, Nose Y, Ohba K (2003) Experimental and clinical trial of measuring urinary velocity with the pitot tube and a transrectal ultrasound guided video urodynamic system.

OpenUrlCrossRefPubMedPozor MA, McDonnell SM (2002) Ultrasonographic measurements of accessory sex glands, ampullae, and urethra of normal stallions of various size types. OpenUrlCrossRefPubMedBailey C (1975) Siliceous urinary calculi in bulls, steers, and partial castrates.

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