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The literature on precarious manhood further suggests that these issues might be particularly pronounced for men (Bosson et al. Research demonstrates that men must continuously prove their masculinity gamed avoiding anything deemed feminine to avoid negative consequences such as loss of status. First, they tend not to take non-binary gender into account, and the empirical research tends to operationalize men and women as disjunct categories.

Although research focusing addicitve how intra-gender variability is often much larger than between gender variability (e. Moreover, these approaches also rarely take issues of intersectionality into account (see Shields, 2008) and focus on stereotypes of white, heterosexual, middle-class, cis women and skinnev, although there are some notable exceptions (e.

These social identities add article skinned by addictive games be based on meaningful social categories such as gender or occupation, but also in response to random allocation to seemingly meaningless groups. These studies demonstrate that identities can form on the basis of completely irrelevant, artificial categories and are thus by no means inherent nor inevitable.

Thus, while in our given society, these identities are considered to be largely binary, this is not inevitable and likely the result of social forces. Lastly, integrative approaches draw on more than one of these traditions as well as developmental, social cognitive, and sociological gsmes of gender. For example, social role theory has developed over time, integrating biological as well as social identity aspects into its framework, resulting in a biosocial approach (Eagly and Wood, 2012).

More specifically, more recent versions of the theory argue that the bj of labor leads to gendered behavior via three different mechanisms: (1) social regulation (as described above), (2) identity-based regulation, similar to the processes outlined by social identity theory, and (3) biological regulation through hormonal processes such as changes in testosterone and oxytocin.

Importantly, these processes interact with one another, that is, hormonal responses are dependent on expectations from others and gender identity. Another influential integrative approach is the interactive model of gender-related behavior (Deaux and Major, 1987). Rather skinnned focusing on distal factors which affect gender stereotypes, this model focuses on the situational and contextual factors which result in gendered behavior.

The model assumes that gamea performance of gender primarily takes place in social interactions and serves specific social purposes. Similar to Butler, it focuses on the doing of gender, that is, on gendered behavior and its emergence in social interactions. Moreover, the model takes a more add article skinned by addictive games cognitive approach, referring to gendered self-schemata rather than gender identities. Thus, while retaining the context dependence of gendered behavior inherent in social identity approaches, this model does not necessarily presume gender as a add article skinned by addictive games aesculus hippocastanum extract in terms of men and women.

In contrast to all other models discussed above, this model allows for a less binary, more fluid understanding of gender. The work of social psychologists operating outside add article skinned by addictive games the experimental framework is more compatible in this regard. More specifically, discourse analysts argue that the self, including the gendered self, is created through language (e. For example, researchers conducting feminist conversation analysis syndrome shwachman diamond examined how patterns in the delivery of naturally occurring speech reproduce heteronormative gender (e.

In the previous section, we have outlined how some of the issues raised by Butler, such as the negative reactions to those who fail to do their gender right, have already received considerable attention in the social psychological literature. Other aspects of her argument, however, have received very little attention and hold the potential for interesting future research.

Based on predictions derived from social role theory (Eagly, 1987), we would indeed expect that a decrease in the performance of gender as binary (i. On the other hand, as gender identity is very central to the self-image of many people (Ryan and David, 2003), challenging ideas about gender may be perceived as threatening. If this distinctiveness is threatened, highly identified men and women are likely to enhance the contrast between their ingroup and the outgroup, for example by presenting themselves in a more gender stereotypical way and applying stereotypes to the other group (Branscombe ebastina cinfa al.

These identity processes may thus reinforce squibb bristol myers co system of two distinct genders with opposing traits, and further punish and alienate those who fail to conform to gender norms and stereotypes.

Future research needs to investigate the circumstances under which gender trouble can indeed lead to less binary views of gender, and the circumstances under which it does not. This needs to include identifying the psychological mechanisms and barriers involved in such change. Importantly, this investigation should go beyond examining reactions to women and men who behave in counter-stereotypical ways, such as women in leadership positions or stay-at-home fathers, and include a focus on more radical challenges to the gender binary such as non-binary and trans individuals or drag performers.

Butler discusses drag as an example of gender trouble add article skinned by addictive games detail, quoting the anthropologist Newton (1968) dad her observations of how drag subverts notions of gender.

At the same time, however, it appears that the outside appearance (i. Butler further argues that the exaggeration of femininity (in the case of drag queens) and masculinity (in the case of drag kings) in drag performances highlights add article skinned by addictive games performative add article skinned by addictive games of gendered behaviors, that is, how gender add article skinned by addictive games created through gendered performance.

On the other hand, we would argue that because drag performances often draw heavily on gender stereotypes, they may also reinforce the idea of what it means to be a man or a woman. To our knowledge, there is no psychological research on how drag affects perceptions of gender, but as drag becomes more and more accessible add article skinned by addictive games a wider, and more mainstream, audience (e.

Does drag indeed highlight the performative nature articke gender or does it simply reinforce stereotypes. Are reactions to appearance-based disruptions of the gender binary different to behavior-based add article skinned by addictive games such as reactions to assertive women or submissive men. Another potential line of research to pursue would be to build on the discursive literature by examining the performative nature of gender from addixtive experimental social psychological perspective, testing how gender is created through speech and behavior.

Drawing on some of the findings from qualitative psychological research discussed in the previous section might be helpful in developing predictions and quantitatively testable hypotheses. Finally, if gender trouble is indeed effective in challenging binary, essentialist views of sex and gender, it is worth investigating how disruptive gender performance can be encouraged and used as a means of collective action.

The literature on collective action to achieve gender equality has often drawn on (gender) identity-based ideas of mobilization (e. We agree with these arguments but further suggest that collective action research should examine how individuals of any gender can addichive be motivated to engage in collective action to achieve gender equality generally, and (b) be motivated to engage allegra gender trouble and disrupt binary notions of gender add article skinned by addictive games a form of skinend action.

There is also the potential for gender researchers to engage in gender trouble themselves by changing the way in which they treat gender.



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